Энергосбережение на предприятиях

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Энергосбережение на производственных предприятиях – это комплекс взаимосвязанных технических, организационных, экономических и иных мероприятий. Поиск оптимального решения представляет собой сложную задачу. Поэтому первым шагом на пути к снижению энергетических затрат и повышению энергоэффективности предприятия является проведение тщательного анализа всех топливно-энергетических ресурсов и источников их потерь.

Повышение энергоэффективности предприятия предполагает эффективное использование топливно-энергетических ресурсов всех видов энергии технико-экономически оправданными способами при существующем уровне развития техники и технологий.

Более подробно о способах снижения энергопотребления смотрите в соответствующих разделах сайта касательно снижения потребления тепловой и электрической энергии. Основные способы экономии энергоресурсов на производстве это:

– модернизация или замена оборудования на более высокий класс по энергоэффективности;

– замещение части потребляемой энергии за счет возобновляемых источников энергии;

– повышение эффективности производственных и технологических процессов;

– эксплуатация оборудования в диапазоне оптимального КПД;

– строгое соблюдение установленных технологических режимов;

– внедрение энергосберегающих технологий;

– уменьшение потерь всех видов энергоносителей;

– регулирование режимов работы электропотребляющего оборудования;

– улучшение качества и параметров энергоносителей;

– использование качественных теплоизоляционных материалов и поддержание целостности теплоизоляционного покрытия;

– оптимизация освещения;

– использование вторичных ресурсов и утилизация остаточного тепла технологических процессов.

В каждом случае присутствуют свои особенности и специфика в реализации энергосберегающих мероприятий. В зависимости от поставленных задач и финансовых возможностей, мероприятия реализуются постепенно или одновременно.

Оборудование с электродвигателями

На производстве сокращение объема потребляемой электроэнергии при эксплуатации оборудования с электродвигателями возможно за счет:

– двигателей с переменной частотой вращения. Энергоэффективные электродвигатели способны сократить до 20% потери мощности. Кроме того, они производят меньше шума при работе. Их стоимость является более высокой, однако уже 500-600 часов эксплуатации полностью окупают дополнительные затраты.

– регулируемых приводов: устройства плавного пуска, частотные преобразователи и т.п. В отраслях, интенсивно использующих насосное оборудование, доля потребления энергии за счет насосов может достигать 80-90% от всего объема потребления.

Сокращение расхода электроэнергии достигается, прежде всего, за счет более эффективного использования оборудования.

– энергосберегающих электроприводов, которые могут использоваться на большинстве предприятий, где нерациональный расход энергии связан с наличием устаревшего оборудования. Регулируемые приводы в европейских странах, к примеру, занимают до 80% от общей доли.

– оптимальной загрузки оборудования с электродвигателями. Оборудование должно эксплуатироваться в диапазоне оптимального КПД согласно паспортным данным. Снижение загрузки электродвигателей, ниже установленных паспортом, не дает снижение электропотребления на такое же значение. Вероятно, в таком случае для оборудования потребуется больше времени для выполнения работы, что и при нормальном уровне загрузки. В результате суммарное количество потребляемой электроэнергии окажется даже выше.

Центробежные насосные агрегаты

В абсолютном большинстве случаев энергопотребление является основной составляющей стоимости жизненного цикла центробежного насосного агрегата, если насос работает более чем 200 часов в год. Фактически около 20% от мирового потребления электроэнергии используется в насосных системах. При использовании регулируемых насосов экономия электроэнергии может достигать до 50%.

Снижение потребления электроэнергии насосного оборудования может достигаться двумя способами:

– уменьшение затрат электроэнергии путем повышения КПД центробежного насоса;

– использование электродвигателей с электронной регулировкой частоты вращения, что позволяет экономить как электрическую, так и тепловую энергию.

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