Автономное электроснабжение ветроизмерительных комплексов

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АВТОНОМНОЕ ЭЛЕКТРОСНАБЖЕНИЕ ВЕТРОИЗМЕРИТЕЛЬНЫХ КОМПЛЕКСОВ

Наша компания в июне 2020 года произвела комплектацию, поставку и монтаж двух систем автономного энергоснабжения для оборудования ветроизмерительных комплексов. Ветромониторинг проводится на территории республики Татарстан в различных районах с целью оценки перспективности строительства ветроэлектростанций.

Измерительное оборудование размещается на мачтах высотой 100 м в отдаленных от населенного пункта мест, где отсутствует возможность подключиться к линии электропередачи. К тому же добраться к ним в зимнее время можно только при помощи снегоходов. Это делает обслуживание оборудования в зимний период крайне затруднительным и, в особенности, если требуется отреагировать быстро. Непрерывная регистрация метеоданных имеет важное значение, поэтому предъявляется высокое требование к надежности применяемого оборудования и системы электроснабжения в целом для обеспечения бесперебойного питания измерительных приборов.

Необходимо учитывать, что зимний период является наиболее сложным в плане выработки электроэнергии для полностью автономных систем электроснабжения, основанных на использовании возобновляемых источников энергии, таких как солнце и ветер. Поскольку короткий световой день зимой дает мало солнечной энергии, а метели и мокрый снег также приводят к снижению выработки солнечных батарей. В добавок к этому в нашем регионе зимой преобладает облачная погода. Зимой отрицательная температура окружающей среды существенно снижает емкость аккумуляторных батарей, что сокращает длительность автономной работы приборов. Пожалуй, единственный плюс зимнего периода — это то, что скорость ветра зимой выше, чем летом.

Для круглогодичного обеспечения электропитания приборов в удаленных от центрального электроснабжения комплексах наиболее эффективным решением является гибридная ветро-солнечная электростанция. Инженерами компании было решено спроектировать ветро-солнечную систему таким образом, чтобы в каждый месяц расчетная выработка каждого источника полностью покрывала потребление оборудования ветроизмерительного комплекса. Таким образом при совместной работе источники дублируют друг друга.

Для повышения отказоустойчивости и надежности система электроснабжения разбита на четыре независимых источника генерации, состоящее из двух ветряных и двух солнечных электростанций. Вся система спроектирована на 12 В и потребители запитаны через общую шину. Таким образом выход из строя одного источника не является критичным для электроснабжения приборов ветроизмерительного комплекса. Также предусмотрена возможность внешней зарядки батарей для случаев наиболее неблагоприятного стечения обстоятельств.   

Для солнечных панелей были установлены МРРТ контроллеры, которые позволяют собрать до 20-25% больше энергии, чем обычные ШИМ аналоги. Приборы на 24В питаются через DC-DC конвертор. Основное оборудование системы автономного электроснабжения состоит из:
– ветрогенераторов YASHEL 500i на 12В – 2шт.;
– солнечных панелей YASHEL SunTec 275Wp – 3 шт.;
– контроллеров заряда Delta MPPT – 2 шт.;
– контроллеры заряда для ветрогенератора – 2 шт.;
– АКБ гелевые Vektor 150 А*ч – 2 шт.

Примечание. Как правило, ветер и солнце движутся в противофазе. Например, в большинстве регионов зимой солнца мало, но скорость ветра выше и больше ветреных дней, а летом наоборот. В ясную погоду ветра мало, но много солнца и, наоборот, в ненастную погоду ветра много, а солнца практически нет. В основу проектирования полностью автономных систем энергоснабжения в расчет берется самый худший энергетический период года.
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